Important Inventions and Discoveries in the world

Airplane, 1903. Inventors: Orville Wright (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867-1912), (U.S.) Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Revolver, 1835. Inventor : Samuel Colt (U.S.) (1814-62).

Steam Engine (condenser), 1765. Inventor : James Watt (Scotland) (1736-1819).

Telephone, 1876. Inventor : Alexander Graham Bell (U.S.) (1847-1922).

Washing Machine (electric), 1907 (date not exact, estimated).  Inventor : Controversial and exact inventor is unknown.

<However, Hurley Machine Company of Chicago (U.S) produced first model of electric washer called “Thor” based on design by Alva J. Fisher, (1910).

Watch (self-winding), 1791. Inventor : Abraham-Louis Breguet (France). Rocker Pedometer action.

X-ray, 1895. Inventor : Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (Germany).

Uranium, 1841. Discoverer : Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) (Germany).

Transistor, 1948. Inventors : John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain (U.S). Researched at Bell Telephone Laboratories. First application for a patent was by Dr Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in Canada in October 1925.

Telegraph, 1837. Inventors : Sir William Cook (1806-79), Sir Charles Wheatstone (England) (1802-75). Demonstrated on 25th July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London.

Submarine, 1776. Inventor : David Bushnell of Saybrook, Connecticut (U.S.).

Stethoscope, Inventor : Dr. William Stokes (England) (1804-78).

Safety Pin, 1849. Inventor : William Hunt (U.S.). First manufactured in New York City.

Rocket Engine, 1926. Inventor : Robert H. Goddard (USA), considered as father of modern rocket propulsion.

Refrigerator, 1851. Inventor : James Harrison [Australian (1816-1893)j Bendigo. Australia, Brewery.

Radar, 1922. Inventors : Dr. Allbert H. Taylor and Leo C. Young (U.S.). Radio reflection effect noted. First harnessed in 1935 by Sir Robert Watson-Watt (England) (b. 1892).

Proton, 1919. Discoverer : Ernest Rutherford (British-New Zealand).

Oxygen, 1775. Discoverer : Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (France).

Ozone, 1839. Discoverer : Christian Schonbein (Germany).

Paper, c. 150. Invented in China. Introduced to West via Yarkand, c. 750.

Motorcycle, 1848. Inventor : Edward Butler (England). First exhibited 1885 by Daimler, earliest factory in Munich 1893.

Motor Scooter, 1919. Inventor : Greville Bradshaw (England).

Microscope, 1590. Inventor : Zacharis Janssen (Netherlands). Compound convex-concave lens.

Machine Gun, 1861. Inventor : Richard Gaffing (U.S.) (1818-1903)
Laws of Gravitation and Motion, 1687. Discovered : Isaac Newton (England).

Laser, 1960. Inventor : Dr. Charles H. Townes (U.S.). First demonstration by Theodore Maiman (U.S.). (Abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).

Jet Engine, 1937. Inventor : Sir Frank Whittle (England) (b. 1906). First tested run in 1937. Principles announced by Merconnet (France) 1909 and Maxime Guillaume (France) 1921. First flight August 27, 1939 by Heinkel He.

Helicopter, 1930. Inventor : d’ Ascanio (Italy). Co-axial machine. Earliest drawing of principle, Le Mans Museum, France, c. 1460. First serviceable machine by Igor Sikorsky (U.S.). 1939.

Electronic Computer, 1942. Inventor : J.G. Brainerd, J.P. Eckert, J.W. Mauchly (U.S.). ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Circulator), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Ballpoint Pen, 1888. Inventor : John J. Loud (U.S.). First practical models by Ladisloa and George Biro (Hungary) in 1938.

Automobile (steam), c. 1769. Inventor : Nicolas Cugnot (France) (1725-1804). Three-wheeled military tractor. Oldest surviving is Italian Bordino (1854) in Turin.

Automobile (gasoline), 1855. Inventor : Karl Benz (Germany) (1844-1929). Earliest model by Father Ferdinand Verbiest (d. 1687) c. 1665 in China. Earliest internal combustion automobile built (1862-63) by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenior (1822-1900) (France). First run by Benz Motorwagon, Manneheim in November or December 1885. Patented in January 29,1886. First powered handcartwith internal combustion engine was by Siegfried Marcus (Austria) (c. 1864).

Atom Bomb, 1945. Inventor : Julius Robert Oppenheimer (U.S) (1904-1967).

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